Huwebes, Hulyo 7, 2011



TOXIN - these are poisonous substance that are produced by living organisms and capable of causing diseases.


Common monkshood, Friar's cap, Garden Wolfsbane

- Alkaloids contained in the plant are responsible for its poisonous effect. Their highest concentration, from 0.2 to 3%, is in young tubers.The main alkaloid is aconitine. During blooming the roots contain a minor amount of aconitine but it grows larger and reaches its maximum in the winter. That is why only young tubers gathered in the autumn are used as a drug. Since tubers easily disintegrate, they should be stored in a dark place.
Aconitine is one of the strongest plant poisons. At first, it acts as a stimulant but, after that, it paralyzes the nervous system. Doses of 2-5 mg can kill an adult. The symptoms of poisoning are oral paresthesias, abundant salivation, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. The skin becomes cool, the limbs become insensitive and the pulse accelerates. Death results from respiratory failure and cardiac arrest. Children may get poisoned if they hold tubers in their hands for a long time.

Yawus (Taxus baccata)

- Symptoms include nausea and vomiting, increased salivation, stomachache, diarrhea, sleepiness, shortage of breath, trembling, spasms, malfunction of the cardiovascular system which leads to collapse and death. Yew’s toxins do not have any application in medicine because of the great danger of poisoning. 

Tobacco (Nicotiana Tobacum)

1. Carbon monoxide–it decreases the oxygen saturation of blood. 
2. Irritating substances–they cause cough and wheezing.
3. Dangerous carcinogenic substances.


Black Widow (Latrodectus)

- The black widow is not an aggressive spider. However, bites are not uncommon. The venom contains neurotoxins and soon after the bite an immediate strong pain is felt. The affected limb starts sweating. Systemic symptoms may develop if the bite is not treated immediately. These include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, pyrexia (fever) and in severe cases paralysis may occur. 

Scorpion (Scorpiones)

- All species of scorpions are poisonous for their preys (mostly insects, for which they are always deadly) but a very small number of the over 1050 known species can be dangerous to humans. The scorpion’s venom is comprised of a variety of compounds, most of which have not been investigated. The venom from a single scorpion may include several neurotoxins, histamine, serotonin, enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, and other unidentified compounds. Each neurotoxin is believed to target specific kind of animals. 

Poison Dart Frog (Dendrobates, Phyllobates)

Most amphibian skin toxins are complex nitrogenous compounds that affect the victim in different ways. Some can cause local irritation only, others provoke hallucinations or act as vasoconstrictors, ones that contract blood vessels.

Martes, Hunyo 14, 2011


who am i?
i'm just called the master gland, 
i may be the king,
but the power behind my back is the hypothamus.

i'm composed of three lobes,
anterior, intermediate and posterior,
many hormones I produce,
to relieve your stress and make you good.

I may do so many things,
things that you will never see.


Sabado, Mayo 14, 2011

"What is the Definition of Endocrinology, Toxicology and Drug Testing?"

"When you say the word ENDOCRINOLOGY, one thing that comes in my mind is our Endocrine System,

we all know that this system is responsible for secreting hormones in our body, therefore when you say

ENDOCRINOLOGY is the study between our endocrine system which secretes hormones. It deals with

different cells involved in our Endocrine System and of course the different hormones that it secretes and it's

different processes that occur."

"How about TOXICOLOGY?. ahah!, I see the word toxic in it, we all know that toxic substance can ruin the

system of our body. So I guess that Toxicology is the study that deals with different chemicals that may affect

us people. What happens to us when we are exposed?, What is the effect of it?, What can we do in order to

treat it?. Those are the question that I guess TOXICOLOGY will answer."

"DRUG TESTING, drugs are everywhere, and there are so many drugs. I know two type of drugs, First are

the drugs that are GOOD and Second are the drugs that are BAD. Example of a GOOD DRUG are those

that provides treatment for the sick, BAD DRUG are those that provides bad effect to humans. DRUG

TESTING is the test in which we are looking for the specific drug in our body through the use of different

specimen, for example urine is the most common, to know whether he/she uses BAD DRUGS like coccaine,

cannabinoids and other, you will know because of his/her urine, there are particular test for detecting different